The Power of Habit – Charles Duhigg

The power of habit
“We’ve done experiments where we trained rats to run down a maze until it was a habit, and then we extinguished the habit by changing the placement of the reward,” Ann Graybiel, a scientist at MIT who oversaw many of the basal ganglia experiments, told me. “Then one day, we’ll put the reward in the old place, and put in the rat, and, by golly, the old habit will reemerge right away. Habits never really disappear. They’re encoded into the structures of our brain, and that’s a huge advantage for us, because it would be awful if we had to relearn how to drive after every vacation. The problem is that your brain can’t tell the difference between bad and good habits, and so if you have a bad one, it’s always lurking there, waiting for the right cues and

This explains why it’s so hard to create exercise habits, for instance, or change what we eat. Once we develop a routine of sitting on the couch, rather than running, or snacking whenever we pass a doughnut box, those patterns always remain inside our heads. By the same rule, though, if we learn to create new neurological routines that overpower those behaviors—if we take control of the habit loop—we can force those bad tendencies into the background,

Every McDonald’s, for instance, looks the same—the company deliberately tries to standardize stores’ architecture and what employees say to customers, so everything is a consistent cue to trigger eating routines.

Claude C. Hopkins

“I made for myself a million dollars on Pepsodent,” Hopkins wrote a few years after the product appeared on shelves. The key, he said, was that he had “learned the right human psychology.” That psychology was grounded in two basic rules: First, find a simple and obvious cue. Second, clearly define the rewards. If you get those elements right, Hopkins promised, it was like magic. Look at Pepsodent: He had identified a cue—tooth film—and a reward—beautiful teeth—that had persuaded millions to start a daily ritual.

Studies of people who have successfully started new exercise routines, for instance, show they are more likely to stick with a workout plan if they choose a specific cue, such as running as soon as they get home from work, and a clear reward, such as a beer or an evening of guilt-free television.2.13 Research on dieting says creating new food habits requires a predetermined cue—such as planning menus in advance—and simple rewards for dieters when they stick to their intentions.2.14

This explains why habits are so powerful: They create neurological cravings. Most of the time, these cravings emerge so gradually that we’re not really aware they exist, so we’re often blind to their influence. But as we associate cues with certain rewards, a subconscious craving emerges in our brains that starts the habit loop spinning.

To understand the power of cravings in creating habits, consider how exercise habits emerge. In 2002 researchers at New MexicoStateUniversity wanted to understand why people habitually exercise.2.28 They studied 266 individuals, most of whom worked out at least three times a week. What they found was that many of them had started running or lifting weights almost on a whim, or because they suddenly had free time or wanted to deal with unexpected stresses in their lives. However, the reason they continued—why it became a habit—was because of a specific reward they started to crave.

If you want to start running each morning, it’s essential that you choose a simple cue (like always lacing up your sneakers before breakfast or leaving your running clothes next to your bed) and a clear reward (such as a midday treat, a sense of accomplishment from recording your miles, or the endorphin rush you get from a jog). But countless studies have shown that a cue and a reward, on their own, aren’t enough for a new habit to last. Only when your brain starts expecting the reward—craving the endorphins or sense of accomplishment—will it become automatic

That craving is an essential part of the formula for creating new habits that Claude Hopkins, the Pepsodent ad man, never recognized.

After Pepsodent started dominating the marketplace, researchers at competing companies scrambled to figure out why. What they found was that customers said that if they forgot to use Pepsodent, they realized their mistake because they missed that cool, tingling sensation in their mouths. They expected—they craved—that slight irritation. If it wasn’t there, their mouths didn’t feel clean.

Anyone can use this basic formula to create habits of her or his own. Want to exercise more? Choose a cue, such as going to the gym as soon as you wake up, and a reward, such as a smoothie after each workout. Then think about that smoothie, or about the endorphin rush you’ll feel. Allow yourself to anticipate the reward. Eventually, that craving will make it easier to push through the gym doors every day. Want

Cravings are what drive habits.

In order to change a habit, you must keep the old cue, and deliver the old reward, but insert a new routine. That’s the rule: If you use the same cue, and provide the same reward, you can shift the routine and change the habit. Almost any behavior can be transformed if the cue and reward stay the same.

Small wins are exactly what they sound like, and are part of how keystone habits create widespread changes. A huge body of research has shown that small wins have enormous power, an influence disproportionate to the accomplishments of the victories themselves. “Small wins are a steady application of a small advantage,” one Cornell professor wrote in 1984. “Once a small win has been accomplished, forces are set in motion that favor another small win.”4.14 Small wins fuel transformative changes by leveraging tiny advantages into patterns that convince people that bigger achievements are within reach.

Small wins are exactly what they sound like, and are part of how keystone habits create widespread changes. A huge body of research has shown that small wins have enormous power, an influence disproportionate to the accomplishments of the victories themselves. “Small wins are a steady application of a small advantage,” one Cornell professor wrote in 1984. “Once a small win has been accomplished, forces are set in motion that favor another small win.” Small wins fuel transformative changes by leveraging tiny advantages into patterns that convince people that bigger achievements are within reach.

“It might have been hard at another company to fire someone who had been there so long,” O’Neill told me. “It wasn’t hard for me. It was clear what our values dictated. He got fired because he didn’t report the incident, and so no one else had the opportunity to learn from it. Not sharing an opportunity to learn is a cardinal sin.”

And the best way to strengthen willpower and give students a leg up, studies indicate, is to make it into a habit. “Sometimes it looks like people with great self-control aren’t working hard—but that’s because they’ve made it automatic,” Angela Duckworth, one of the University of Pennsylvania researchers told me. “Their willpower occurs without them having to think about it.”

“By making people use a little bit of their willpower to ignore cookies, we had put them into a state where they were willing to quit much faster,” Muraven told me. “There’s been more than two hundred studies on this idea since then, and they’ve all found the same thing. Willpower isn’t just a skill. It’s a muscle, like the muscles in your arms or legs, and it gets tired as it works harder, so there’s less power left over for other things.”

“If you want to do something that requires willpower—like going for a run after work—you have to conserve your willpower muscle during the day,” Muraven told me. “If you use it up too early on tedious tasks like writing emails or filling out complicated and boring expense forms, all the strength will be gone by the time you get home.

“When you learn to force yourself to go to the gym or start your homework or eat a salad instead of a hamburger, part of what’s happening is that you’re changing how you think,”

“That’s why signing kids up for piano lessons or sports is so important. It has nothing to do with creating a good musician or a five-year-old soccer star,” said Heatherton. “When you learn to force yourself to practice for an hour or run fifteen laps, you start building self-regulatory strength. A five-year-old who can follow the ball for ten minutes becomes a sixth grader who can start his homework on time.”5.13

“When someone comes up and starts yelling at you because they got the wrong drink, what’s your first reaction?” “I don’t know,” Travis said. “I guess I feel kind of scared. Or angry.” “That’s natural,” his manager said. “But our job is to provide the best customer service, even when the pressure’s on.” The manager flipped open the Starbucks manual, and showed Travis a page that was largely blank. At the top, it read, “When a customer is unhappy, my plan is to … ” “This workbook is for you to imagine unpleasant situations, and write out a plan for responding,” the manager said. “One of the systems we use is called the LATTE method. We Listen to the customer,

Acknowledge their complaint, Take action by solving the problem, Thank them, and then Explain why the problem occurred.5.19 THE LATTE HABIT LOOP “Why don’t you take a few minutes, and write out a plan for dealing with an angry customer. Use the LATTE method. Then we can role-play a little bit.”

Destructive organizational habits can be found within hundreds of industries and at thousands of firms. And almost always, they are the products of thoughtlessness, of leaders who avoid thinking about the culture and so let it develop without guidance. There are no organizations without institutional habits. There are only places where they are deliberately designed, and places where they are created without forethought, so they often grow from rivalries or fear.

There’s a paradox in this observation, of course. How can an organization implement habits that balance authority and, at the same time, choose a person or goal that rises above everyone else? How do nurses and doctors share authority while still making it clear who is in charge? How does a subway system avoid becoming bogged down in turf battles while making sure safety is still a priority, even if that means lines of authority must be redrawn? The answer lies in seizing the same advantage that Tony Dungy encountered when he took over the woeful Bucs and Paul O’Neill discovered when he became CEO of flailing Alcoa. It’s the same opportunity Howard Schultz exploited when he returned to a flagging Starbucks in 2007.

All those leaders seized the possibilities created by a crisis. During turmoil, organizational habits become malleable enough to both assign responsibility and create a more equitable balance of power. Crises are so valuable, in fact, that sometimes it’s worth stirring up a sense of looming catastrophe rather than letting it die down.

A company with dysfunctional habits can’t turn around simply because a leader orders it. Rather, wise executives seek out moments of crisis—or create the perception of crisis—and cultivate the sense that something must change, until everyone is finally ready to overhaul the patterns they live with each day. “You never want a serious crisis to go to waste,” Rahm Emanuel told a conference of chief executives in the wake of the 2008 global financial meltdown, soon after he was appointed as President Obama’s chief of staff. “This crisis provides the opportunity for us to do things that you could not do before.”

Pregnant women and new parents, after all, are the holy grail of retail. There is almost no more profitable, product-hungry, price-insensitive group in existence. It’s not just diapers and wipes. People with infants are so tired that they’ll buy everything they need—juice and toilet paper, socks and magazines—wherever they purchase their bottles and formula. What’s more, if a new parent starts shopping at Target, they’ll keep coming back for years.

“Consumers sometimes act like creatures of habit, automatically repeating past behavior with little regard to current goals,”

Whether selling a new song, a new food, or a new crib, the lesson is the same: If you dress a new something in old habits, it’s easier for the public to accept it.

“Just wait till the baby comes,” Pole said. “We’ll be sending you coupons for things you want before you even know you want them.”

A movement starts because of the social habits of friendship and the strong ties between close acquaintances. It grows because of the habits of a community, and the weak ties that hold neighborhoods and clans together. And it endures because a movement’s leaders give participants new habits that create a fresh sense of identity and a feeling of ownership.

A movement starts because of the social habits of friendship and the strong ties between close acquaintances. It grows because of the habits of a community, and the weak ties that hold neighborhoods and clans together. And it endures because a movement’s leaders give participants new habits that create a fresh sense of identity and a feeling of ownership.

McGavran’s philosophy said that if you teach people to live with Christian habits, they’ll act as Christians without requiring constant guidance and monitoring. Warren couldn’t lead every single small group in person;

“Sleepwalking is a reminder that wake and sleep are not mutually exclusive,” Mark Mahowald, a professor of neurology at the University of Minnesota and a pioneer in understanding sleep behaviors, told me. “The part of your brain that monitors your behavior is asleep, but the parts capable of very complex activities are awake. The problem is that there’s nothing guiding the brain except for basic patterns, your most basic habits. You follow what exists in your head, because you’re not capable of making a choice.”

It is just that Angie Bachmann should be held accountable and that Brian Thomas should go free because Thomas never knew the patterns that drove him to kill existed in the first place—much less that he could master them. Bachmann, on the other hand, was aware of her habits. And once you know a habit exists, you have the responsibility to change it. If she had tried a bit harder, perhaps she could have reined them in. Others have done so, even in the face of greater temptations.


  1. Identify the routine 
  2. Experiment with rewards 
  3. Isolate the cue 
  4. Have a plan

As you test four or five different rewards, you can use an old trick to look for patterns: After each activity, jot down on a piece of paper the first three things that come to mind when you get back to your desk. They can be emotions, random thoughts, reflections on how you’re feeling, or just the first three words that pop into your head. Then, set an alarm on your watch or computer for fifteen minutes. When it goes off, ask yourself: Do you still feel the urge for that cookie?

Put another way, a habit is a formula our brain automatically follows: When I see CUE, I will do ROUTINE in order to get a REWARD. To re-engineer that formula, we need to begin making choices again. And the easiest way to do this, according to study after study, is to have a plan. Within psychology, these plans are known as “implementation intentions.”

Money Rules – Gail Vaz-Oxlade

Money Rules - Gail Vax-Oxilade
YOUR money is YOUR responsibility.
If you won’t take the time to figure out how it works, you shouldn’t be surprised when it doesn’t work for you.

Rule #4: You must have POA’s: 

Dying is easy.  Not dying and becoming incapacitated, that really sucks.  And if you don’t have all your i’s dotted and T’s crossed, it will suck even more.  Just because you are married, don’t assume you can make decisions for your partner.  Since he had never executed POA’s, Kathryn could not touch his bank account, she tried to keep the mortgage paid and buy food for the kids.  At least go to the Ministry of Attorney General website and download the kit.

Rule #14: Don’t let your lender decide how much home you should buy:

Letting your lender decide how much you can afford to borrow is like putting a fox in charge of the hen house.  Lenders are perfectly happy to lend you far more than you can afford to repay.  In 2011 a study came out showing that 700.000 Canadians could not handle a $200 increment per month in their mortgage payments, while another 200.000 Canadians could not handle ANY increases at all.  With rates at historical lows, there is only one way for rates and payments to go: UP!

Rule #21: It is not how much you make, it is about how much you keep:

Saving is a habit. Either you get in to the habit of saving and having something in the future or you don’t.

Rule #29:  You can have it all, just not at the same time:

Rule #40: Figure out your money set point:

Everyone has a money set point. When you reach yours, you feel rich and stop paying attention to the details.  It may be a low set point, just $500 is all it takes to make you think you are invincible.

Rule #56:  Leveraging is not for everybody:

You should never leverage unless:

  1. You are an experienced and knowledgeable investor, and
  2. You are prepared to loose money.

Rule #83:  Calculate the real profit on your home:

One of the favourite delusions people like to share is “I made a gazillion dollars on the sale of my house”.  Your profit is not just the sale – buying difference.

Here are some of the other things besides selling price that you should take into account:

  • The interest you have paid through your mortgage.
  • The property tax you have paid.
  • The cost of maintenance and upkeep.
  • The costs associated with selling the home.

Rule #110: Ash these questions before you borrow:

  • What will my payment be?
  • What will this loan end up costing me in the long run?
  • Can I get a better rate if I secure the loan?
  • How long will it take to repay the loan?
  • Is there a penalty or fee to repay the loan early?
  • If I miss a payment, how will that affect my interest rate?
  • What will I give up to get this?

Rule #112:  Ask for a cash discount:

“You may not be able to discount between cards, but there is nothing in your agreement with Visa that stops you from giving me a cash discount.  So you can give me 1% off for cash, or I’ll use my credit card and you can pay 2 to 4 % for processing this transaction”.

Rule #143: Designate beneficiaries on everything:

Want an easy way to avoid probate costs and pass assets directly to those you want to have them?  Make sure you have a beneficiary on the plans themselves ( TFSA, RRSP, Life insurance plans ).

Rule #171: Work harder to pay more taxes:

When I tell people that they should make more money, very often the response I get back is “it’s not worth it to have another job because I will end up paying the whole thing in taxes”

Good Lord! So the reason you are not prepared to make more money is that you don’t want to pay more taxes?  You would rather stay broke, poor, or in debt because you want to screw the Tax Man? Really?

Rule #173:  Your bank will give you all the rope you need to hang yourself:

Banks are in the business of selling money.  If they think you are a higher risk, they simply charge you more interest to make up for that risk.  But they are more than happy to help you borrow your way into Debt Hell.  Counting on the bank to lend you only as much as you can afford to borrow is like counting on the fox to take care of the chickens.

I am surprised when I come up a 21 year old making $24.000 a year to whom a bank has given a credit card with a $15.000 limit, banks don’t care about your ability to repay the balance in a timely fashion anymore.  Now they are most interested in keeping you on the minimum payment hook for as long as possible because you are a cash cow!

YOU have to know how much you can afford to borrow.

Rule #211:  Self employment is tax smart:

Start a business form home, however small, and magically, expenses from internet access to plumbing details become at least partly deductible.

Rule #223:  Open an RESP for your kids:

Rule #229:  Ask yourself, would you pick it up?

I tell people to move their savings account to another bank paying 2% more.  They do a quick calculation in their heads and say something like “On my 10.000 emergency fund that is just $150 a year”

So along comes my friend Victoria, her question would be “So, would you bend down and pick it up?  Would you pick the $150 if it was on the ground?”

Rule #232: Don’t buy now and pay later:

The biggest problem with BNPL is the ease with which people can take home stuff they have yet to pay for, making it feel like they go a special deal, and leaving them with the euphoria of purchase without the pain of payment as an offset.  BNPL encourages people to spend more than they would if they were shopping with cash.  Physiologically we need the pain pleasure balance to help us prioritize.  Removing one side of the equation lets us delude ourselves.

If you don’t have the money to pay for something, you don’t have the right to take that something home.  If you have the money, pay for it and be done with the transaction.

Rule #235:  Calculate the Cost Per Use to determine Value:

If you are buying a pair of shoes that you will wear all the time you should be prepared to pay a little more so the shoes last and they are comfortable.  But if you are dropping $800 on a pair of high heels that you will end up wearing four or five times you are looking at a $160 – $200 a wear cost.  Dumb!

Rule #245: Don’t make yourself house poor:

Home ownership is NOTHING like renting.  If you think you can afford a home because the mortgage payment is almost like aren’t, you are going into home ownership blind.

You will have utility costs, taxes, insurance, and maintenance when the roof leaks or the furnace gives up.

Calculate your maintenance budget.  Use the rule of thumb of between 3% to 5% of the value of the home.  If you are not prepared for the costs associated with home ownership, you will end up filling the gap in your cash flow by using credit and your savings will go to hell.

Rule #247:  Name a contingent subscriber on your RESPS:

The money you put in an RESP does not belong to the beneficiary until it is paid out.  All the money you are piling up for your kids remains your money until you start doling it out.

Since kids who are the beneficiaries have no legal interest in the plans, you would be very wise to name a “contingent subscriber” for the RESP when you open it up.  If you don’t and you die intestate ( without a will in place ) the plan will likely be terminated and all the contributions and income earned put into your estate.

Since the plan has been terminated, the Canada Education Savings Grants would have to be repaid to the government.  Don’t what that to happen? Make a will. Name a contingent subscriber; your children’s guardian would be a natural choice.

Rule #248: Cross cheques to protect yourself:

According to the law, if a third party ( cheque cashing stores like money mart )accepts a cheque that it does not know has been stopped, it can treat it as a valid cheque and collect the money from the issuer ( YOU ! ).

If you are writing a cheque that may have to be stopped ( to a supplier you are not sure of, or post-dated cheques that might need to be cancelled down the road  ) cross your cheques and write “Not Negotiable” between the lines.

If a third party accepts a crossed cheque and finds out the cheque was stopped, they can’t come after you.  It must seek recourse after against the body that cashed the stopped cheque.

Rule #258: Leave $1.000 of your emergency fund in your checking account.


How To Travel The World on $50 a Day – Matt Kepnes

How to travel th the wold on $50 a day
Matt’s page

If your rent it $900 per month, that’s $30 per day, which is 60% of the daily budget set out in this book Add in food costs, gas, insurance and cable, and your set expenses are mostly higher than the number you need for a year abroad.  And that’s before you have done anything else with your life.

Round the world tickets:  Oneworld.  It is the RTW pass you can buy.

RTW alternatives:

The best search engines are those with no affiliation with airlines, and those who make their money on advertising, not commissions:

I highly recommend the site or

Get a travel discount card: YHA, youth hostel association.

If you really need your mail while abroad you can sign up to

There are four major hospitality exchange organizations:

When I am looking for a couchsourfing host, I use the following criteria to ensure the host is legitimate:

  • There has to be a picture with the profile.
  • The profile has to be filled out completely.
  • There should be reviews from other users.
  • Though not necessary.  I like when people have been verified by Couchsourfing.

Last minute hotel deals:

House Sitting:


Service Apartments:

If tap water in your part of the world is not drinkable you can use Steripen the best reference website on Asia.

Southwest Asia booking:  There are not many online resources for booking online, however there are three that are worth mentioning.


The Little Book of Real Estate Investing in Canada – Don Campbell

The Little Book of Real Estate Investing in Canada – Don Campbell

Treat real estate like a business, purchase properties in areas where the economic fundamentals support the greatest possibility for equity appreciation, and only by properties that produce monthly net cash flow.

I learned, very early on, to only take advice from someone who has been very successful in what I want to be successful at.  You will notice I did not just say relatively successful, and I am also not talking about someone who got lucky in a hot market.  I want to learn from, discover insights from and hear the good and the bad side of the investment world from someone who has seen it all and knows how to respond to all market conditions.

Residential properties located within 800 metres of light rail or rapid transit stations typically can charge rents that are 5 to 11 percent higher than the prevailing market.

National stats mean nothing to the sophisticated investor.  The fact that prices are up 5 percent across the country means nothing in a city where they have dropped 5 percent or have risen 8 percent.  Ignore national stats.  Focus on your chosen geographic zone.

The 10 Fundamentals of Successful Real Estate Investing.

  1. Mortgage Interest Rates.
  2. The disposable income effect.
  3. Increased Job Growth.
  4. The Real Estate Doppler Effect.
  5. Local Regional and Provincial climates.
  6. Critical Infrastructure Expansion.
  7. Areas in Transition.
  8. Creating Highest and Best Use.
  9. Buy Wholesale, Sell Retail.
  10. Quality Proactive Marketing.

The Pseudo-Fundamentals

  1. Renovation and Sweat Equity.
  2. Speculation.

I expanded our portfolio while staying true to the 3 most important principles of my system:

  • Cash flow is King.
  • Market Appreciation is a Bonus.
  • Following the economic data is the foundation to making great investment decisions.

Your job as an investor is to study the fundamental, analyze the actual property you are buying and then manage that property through all types of market conditions, not to out-guess the cycle.

The strategic investor knows that if he can’t find positive cash flow properties in his target market, the system is working, not broken.

I believe that sound investment advice, given by someone who is actually experienced and doesn’t profit if you buy a property, is available; just be careful of pretenders.  I only take advice from someone who meets the following criteria:

  1. They must be actively investing in Real Estate.
  2. They must have at least 10 years of personal experience investing in Real Estate, which ensures they have come through the ups and downs.
  3. They must have been successful over that time.  This point is critical because lots of unsuccessful investors turn to teaching rather than becoming better investors.

Over time I have learned to give myself a pat on the back every time I walk away from a property that would have wakened my portfolio because that is exactly what a sophisticated investor is supposed to do.  

Regardless of what is at the root of the problem with a property ( financial or economic fundamentals, access to renovators ), if my system tells me I can’t fix it within my parameters, I must move on.  The fundamentals may be telling me to buy, but I simply cannot justify borrowing money to invest in a property that can’t provide cash flow.

A strategic investor would wait until the project starts, then buy from the speculators who want to get out with their quick buck.  Because the investor’s decision is based on fundamentals, he gets the benefit of lower risk with long term profits.  In sum, the sophisticated investor might keep an eye on properties affected by a hot tip.  But they are unlikely to buy until the development proceeds.  Veteran investors sometimes joke that they make their money as settlers, not as pioneers.

You must always take responsibility for the bad results in your business if you also want to take credit for the good results.  Ignore this rule and you risk your reputation as a professional.

Rules of Engagement when communicating with team members:

  1. Set goals and write them down so everyone agrees on the expected volume.
  2. Have an agenda for every meeting and stick to it.  No rambling or tangents.
  3. Separate the person from the problem.  Come up with solutions, not blame.
  4. Discover the team member’s real motivations.  Often is not money, even if they say it is.
  5. Only respond to reason, not pressure.  ( Stick to your system! )
  6. Be willing to walk away before you saying something you will regret.

Credible Real Estate Investors:

  1. Show up on time for appointments.
  2. Do what they say they will do.
  3. Under promise and over deliver.
  4. Know they are judged on the reputation of the people they choose to do business with.
  5. Like knowing their record can speak for itself.

Riding a bicycle is one way to increase your physical fitness and improve your chances of living long and healthy life.  Of course, jumping on a bike for the first time in years and sprinting at an Olympic pace can have exactly the opposite effect, making you unwell to the point at which you require resuscitation.  That is why slow and steady progress over a few years ( giving you time to build up to Olympic levels ) is so critical.

Building your portfolio slowly and steadily, rather than pushing for explosive growth all at once, can lead to your achieving the equivalent of an Olympic level in a financial goal.  Building it fast and furiously can lead t catastrophic financial and emotional issues.

Real Estate investor Thomas Beyer of Prestigious Properties compares real estate to a satisfying dinner:

Real estate is like a three course meal.  The appetizer is the positive cash flow, always appreciated but nor required as break even is okay too.  The main course is the mortgage pay down and must be there moth after month.  You will get rich and fat just on the main course.  The dessert is the equity appreciation.  Like an appetizer it is always appreciated but not required for a meal or wealth creation.

Unfortunately beginning and inexperienced investors only focus on the dessert, and just like in real life, if that is all you eat you will die soon.

Top Reasons to Invest in Real Estate:

  1. It is a more tangible investment, one you can see, one you can improve to maximize return, and overall you are more in control of it.
  2. Tenants help pay the mortgage and expenses, and after 25 years of so, you will have a fully paid investment to help with your retirement.  We certainly can not count on Canada Pension Plan to fund our retirement.
  3. If you can’t get financing on a single family home, then a multiple family dwelling is a more affordable entry point into the real estate market, which will help you build your equity.
  4. Historically real estate has delivered strong returns.